Barren Island, which is located in the Andaman Sea, has the distinction of being the only active volcano in India. The volcanic island lies only 135 kilometers away from the capital city Port Blair. The island that measures around 3 kilometers has a large crater of the volcano that rises around half kilometers away from the shore of the sea. The depth of the crater is measured around 150 fathoms.
True to its name, it is a barren area uninhabited by humans, though it has a small population of goats. Also birds, bats like flying foxes and a few rodent species such as rats are known to survive the harsh conditions.
Barren Island is circular (10 sq km) and consists of a 1.6 km wide somma and a central cone. Barren volcano consists of a caldera open towards the west and a central cinder cone. Two spatter cones the south-eastern and western flanks of the cinder cone formed during the 1994-95 eruption. Pre-caldera activity consists of five lava flows separated by scoria fall beds and minor ash tuff and cinder deposits. Steam vents are visible within the 1995 lava flows.
An eruption began on 28th May 2005. An ash plume was erupted from a vent on the W side of the summit. Lava flows were produced. The eruption may have been precipitated by the great Sumatra earthquake in December 2004. Continued ash emissions have been reported between 2005 and 2008. On 3rd January 2010 ash emissions reached a height of 1.5 km.
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